This document is a general outline of the items to be included in the ground and flight training of pilots during Recurrent King Air 300/350.
The goal of Recurrent Training is to prevent accidents by ensuring pilots have proper training in the specified systems and operating characteristics of their aircraft. Additionally, the King Air 300/350 Recurrent Training course will enhance airmanship knowledge and skills that are not specific to the aircraft.
To enroll in the Stark Aviation King Air 300/350 Recurrent Course the pilot must have at least a private pilot certificate with an instrument rating or an ATP certificate with 150 hours as PIC in type. Additionally the pilot must complete and return a detailed pilot survey used to define the pilot’s personal experience.
SBT represents a non-traditional approach to training. The most significant shift is the move away from the traditional practice of simple maneuver-based training and repetition. SBT uses the same maneuvers, but scripts them into realistic training experiences. Practice of the task remains the cornerstone of skill acquisition, but the shift is away from meaningless drill/repetition in the practice area toward meaningful application as a part of a normal flight activity. The goal of SBT is to teach the PT “how to think and make decisions” as early as possible in the flight training process.
This syllabus utilizes some maneuver-based instruction, mainly in approach and landing training, however the emphasis is on SBT. It also provides a coordinated ground/flight sequence of training so that academic support materials are covered before the flight lesson. However, it goes well beyond the current training philosophy by placing the PT in a realistic environment.
Several training items require a discussion of airplane component or system limitations. In every airplane system there are limitations based on two factors:
1. The absolute capability of the equipment to perform a particular function and;
2. The individual pilot’s ability to use that equipment.
Effective training and experience enables the safe operation of an airplane within these limitations. Some airplane systems are more complex and require a higher level of skill and interpretation. Pilot skills and knowledge vary with a pilot’s total flight time, time-in-type, and recent flight training and/or experience. Pilots must therefore be trained to recognize their personal limitations as well as those of the airplane.
Throughout the ground school and flight curriculum, emphasis will be placed on operating within airplane and pilot limitations. Risk management and decision-making skills (also referred to as Single Pilot Resource Management (SRM)) are consistently integrated into each scenario. A discussion of limitations, as they apply to the pilot’s experience level, and with reference to potential problem areas, will enhance the decision process. Recurrent Training includes discussions of system limitations, flight characteristics of the specific airplane, and how these items apply to a particular pilot.
The ground-based segments of the syllabus are an integral part of the SBT course and will be integrated into the flight training experience. The pilot-in-training (PT) will demonstrate, through written and or oral review, the knowledge to safely operate the King Air 300/350, using the Pilot’s Operating Handbook, the Pilot’s Training Manual, airplane checklists and other material. All time critical emergency procedures must be committed to memory. The Instructor will discuss each incorrect response with the pilot to ensure complete understanding and the reasons why their responses were incorrect. The instructor must integrate SRM concepts and techniques in each of these discussions.
The basic structure of thinking skills training is to engage the learner in a task or in solving a problem, ask the learner to reflect on the mental process used to solve the task or problem, consider other ways the task or problem could have been solved, and then consider which way was better or best. A discussion of why one method is or may be better than another will help the learner build better problem-solving strategies.
The recurrent flight training lesson consists of a scripted scenario. The instructor and PT should use the scenario as a lesson plan. The intent is for the PT to study the lesson script, prepare a scenario plan, and brief it as part of the preflight preparation.
It is vitally important that the PT learn to “manage” the aircraft in the automated mode, as well as fly the aircraft by hand. Good SRM demands that the PT be able to utilize the autopilot and automated navigation systems during times of high cockpit task loads. Instructors must ensure that emphasis is given to both automated and manual flight modes as described in any scenario. The pilot-in-training should demonstrate the necessary skill and experience required for the safe operation of the King Air 300/350 Operations must be accomplished within the tolerances specified in the Practical Test Standards appropriate to the rating held by the PT.
Pre-Scenario Planning - For Scenario Based Training to be effective; it is vital that the PT and instructor communicate well in advance of the training session. The instructor should communicate the following information in order that the PT can plan accordingly:
• Scenario destination(s)
• Desired PT learning outcomes
• Desired level of PT performance
• Desired level of automation use
• Possible in-flight scenario changes (during later stages of the program no pre-flight notification is required)
When conducting the recurrent syllabus, the instructor should make the situation as realistic as possible. The PT will know the mission parameters in advance of the flight. While the actual flight may deviate from the original plan, it allows the PT to be placed in a realistic scenario, and provides a frame of reference for all follow on actions and decisions.
Scenario Planning – Before the flight, the instructor will propose the scenario to be planned. After discussion with the instructor, the PT will plan the flight to include:
• Desired PT learning outcomes
• Possible alternate scenarios and emergency procedures
• Performance Considerations
Pre-Flight Briefing – The PT will brief the instructor on the flight scenario, which will include:
• Route, weather, performance and NOTAMS
• Accomplishment of desired training outcomes
• Emergency procedures and alternate scenarios
• SRM considerations (see the SRM outcomes list in section 5)
• Safety considerations
In-Flight – The PT will execute the scenario plan with minimal intervention from the instructor. The instructor should provide scenarios that allow the PT to be exposed to the differences of the TAA aircraft while exercising critical thinking skills. For example, the instructor may create a situation that requires the PT to divert. In doing so, the PT should utilize TAA automated systems and critical thinking skills to determine the best course of action.
Post-Flight – The post-flight review should be a dialogue between the PT and the instructor critiquing the flight scenario. Typically, the discussion should be led by the PT “self-critiquing” and the instructor “enabling” the PT to solve the problems and drawing conclusions. Based on this analysis, the PT and instructor should discuss methods and alternatives for improvement. This will also include those items considered successful. This step is critical in the development of higher order thinking and decision-making skills. In the beginning, the instructor may take a leading role in the post-flight review demonstrating to the PT the proper method to conduct the post-flight; however, it is vital that the PT learn to identify performance deficiencies, problem solve and administer corrective actions independently.
It is important that the PT and instructor understand that the object of scenario-based training in the Recurrent training course is to cause a change in the thought processes, habits, and behaviors of the PT.
The King Air 300/350 recurrent training syllabus is learner centered. It is important that the PT understands the success of the recurrent-training syllabus is measured in the desired PT outcomes list below. These desired outcomes are not based on the traditional standards. Instead, they are based on the knowledge and skill level of the PT:
The grading and evaluation of flight performance shall be based on the appropriate FAA Practical Test Standards using the Desired PT Scenario Outcomes defined in Section 1. PT performance shall be graded and evaluated as: PROFICIENT, NORMAL PROGRESS or ADDITIONAL TRAINING REQUIRED. The criteria for evaluation shall be as follows:
• PROFICIENT (1) – Based on the Desired PT Scenario Outcomes defined in Section 1, a grade of PROFICIENT (1) will be awarded when the PT in training attains the level of Perform or Manage-Decide. Perform is used to describe proficiency in a skill item such as an approach or landing. Manage-Decide are used to describe proficiency in an SRM area such as ADM. (Note: a grade of Explain may be used to signify proficiency in an event which is not performed in the aircraft due to safety considerations)
• NORMAL PROGRESS (2) – Based on the Desired PT Scenario Outcomes defined in Section 1, a grade of NORMAL PROGRESS (2) will be awarded when the PT attains the level of performance below proficiency that is required for the individual training scenario. Describe, Explain and Practice are used to describe PT learning levels below proficiency in both skill items and SRM areas.
• ADDITIONAL TRAINING REQUIRED (3) – Based on the Desired PT Scenario Outcomes defined in Section 1, a grade of ADDITIONAL TRAINING REQUIRED will be given when the PT fails to attain the level of performance that is required for the individual training scenario.
In order to complete any pilot training course, the client must attain a grade of Proficient (1) in all areas of training. Any maneuver or procedure completed with less than a Proficient grade (1) must be repeated until a grade of Proficient is attained before the client can satisfactorily complete the course.
I recently hired Stark Aviation Services for my annual King Air Training. Noteworthy was the attention to detail of systems review, as well as the actual flight training. Stark Aviation Services was very thorough and professional in all aspects of the training event. They were able to accomplish my King Air 350 recurrent training, as well as differences training in the King Air 200, and 90 series in a timely fashion, and at a very competitive price. In the beginning I was a bit skeptical about training in the actual airplane since most underwriters insist on simulator based training. However, the underwriters approved the course without question, and the convenience of training out of my home base as opposed to having to travel, speaks for itself. In closing, for those who would have the ability to train in the actual aircraft they fly, I highly recommend Stark Aviation Services.
ATP CFII/MEI B-737, BE-300, CE-500, CE-525S, CE-560XL, IA-Jet